6: Mahatma Gandhi and National Movement
Satyagrah à This word is derived from two words - ‘Satya’ and ‘Agraha’, which means “truth-force”. It is different from passive resistance. Passive resistance did not exclue using force for gaining one’s side but Satyagrah exlude all type of voilence.
Swadeshi à This means that producing necessary items Iin one’s own country and using it without being dependent on imported goods.
Non-Cooperation à It is a way of protesting in which one do not co-operate with evil-doer.
v Gandhiji was involved in
· Champaran Satyagrah in Bihar (1917)
· Ahemdabad Satyagrah (1918)
· Kheda Satyadrah (1918)
Non - Cooperation
v Causes that lead to non-cooperation movement
· Khilafat Movement
· Rowlatt Act
o Arrest of person without warrant
o Restriction on movement of individuals
o In-camera trials
o Suspension of Habeas Corpus
· Jaliawanwala Bagh Tragedy
v Objectives of non-cooperation movement
· Attainment of self-government within British Empire if possible and outside if necessary.
· Anullment of Rowlatt Act and Remedying Punjab Wrong
· Remedying Khilafat Wrong
v Boycott and Swadeshi were weapons. Colleges like Jamia Milia Islamia , Bihar Vidyapith , Kashi Vidyapith and Gujarat Vidyapith were established.
v Chauri Chura: In Gorakhpur a peaceful demonstration turned into a violent clash with the police. Hearing of the incident, Mahatma Gandhi called a pause to the Non-Cooperation Movement. Gandhiji asked congressmen to give attention to
o Hindu-Muslim unity
o Removal of untouchability
o Popularisation of Swaraj and Khadi
v Impact of non-cooperation movement:
· Fostered Hindu-Muslim unity
· Popularised the cult of Swaraj
· Congress became revolutionary movement
· The National movement became mass movement
· Promoted social reforms
v Factors Leading to civil disobedience movement:
· Simon Commission
· Declarartion of Poorna swaraj in 16th January 1929 under the presidentship of Jawaharlal Nehru.
v Programme civil disobedience movement:
· Defiance of Salt Laws
· Boycott of foreign cloth and British goods of all kind
· Boycott of Liquor
· Non-payment of taxes and revenues
Abdul Gaffar Khan à The Frontier Gandhi . Pathans organised a socienty “Khudai Khidmatgars” known as Red Shirts under his leadership.
Rani Gaidilieu à At age of 13 raised the banner of revolt against British in North-East.
v Gandhi Irwin Pact:
The Gandhi-Irwin Pact was signed on 5th March 1931. Gandhiji agreed to attend the Second Round Table Conference in London. He also suspended the Civil Disobedience Movement.
· Release all political prisoners except those guilt of voilence
· Permit free collection and manufacture of salt by persons near the seacoast.
· Permit peaceful pickiting of liquor and foreign cloth shops
· To suspend Civil Disobdience Movement
· To participate in second session of Round Table Conference
v Round Table Conference:
· First Round Table Conference à It was held in London. Congress did not participated in it.
· Second Round Table Conference à Lasted for 3 months. Mahatma Gandhi participated in it as a sole representative of Congress. He returned disappointed.
· Thrid Round Table Conference à Congress did not participate in it. Attended by 46 delegates only. Communal Award was announced which provided separate representation to Muslims,Buddhists,Sikhs,Indian Christians , Anglo Indians,Europeans and the Depressed Classes. Gandhiji opposed Communal award. Dr. Ambedkar, leader of the depressed classes agreed not to accept this award. Reservation of seats for these classes was agreed to this is often called Poona Pact.
· It made people understand the importance of the principle of non-voilence .
· It was a mass movement in which people of all sections took part
· This movement continued till Gandhiji suspended it, in spite of British atrocities. This showed clearly that the Indians were not going to be cowed down by the British any further.
· Movement revived the will to fight the elections.