History Notes

First War of Independence

1: First war of Independence

v Causes of first war of Independence 1857 [SIP ME]     

Ø Socio Religious Causes : [Capital Of]

§  Corruption in Admistration

§  Apprehensions about modern innovation

§  Policy of Racial Discrimination

§  Interference with Social Customs

§  Taxing Religoius Places

§  Activities of  Missionery

§  Law of Property

§  Oppression of the Poor

§  Fear Regarding Western Education

Ø Political Causes : [Adapt]

§  Absentee Sovereignty of British

§  Disrespect shown to Bahadur Shah Zafar

§  Policy of Expansion

o   By Outright wars

o   By Subsidiary Alliance

o   By Doctrine of  Lapse  (According to Doctrine of  Lapse heir adopted with the consent of  the company could inherit only the private property of the deceased ruler and not his territory , which would come under the Company’s rule || victims:- Jhansi , Satara , Nagpur , Udaipur , Sambalpur).

o   On pretext of Alleged misrule

§  Treatment given to Rani Laxmi Bai and Nana Saheb

Ø Military Causes : [DLF IPL BG]

§  Deprivation of Allowances

§  Lower Salaries

§  Faulty Distribution of Troops

§  Ill treatment

§  Poor Performance of British Troops

§  Larger Proportion of Indians in British Army

§  Bleak Prospects of Promotion

§  General Service Enlisment Act (1856)

Ø Economic Causes : [Deep Gi DD]

§  Decay of cottage Industries

§  Expolitation of  Economic Resources

§  Economic Decline of Peasantry

§  Poverty and Famines

§  Growing Unemployment

§  Inhuman Treatment of Indigo Cultivators

§  Decline of Landed Aristocracy

§  Drain of Wealth

Ø Immediate Cause:

§  In 1856, British authorities decided to replace old fashioned musket with new Enfield Rifles. The loading process involed bringing the cartirage to mouth and biting off the top greased paper.

§  There was a rumour that the grease is made of the fat of ‘cows’ and ‘pigs’. Cows were sacred for Hindus and Pigs were taboo for Muslims. They though it is a desperate attempt of British to defy their caste and religion

§  Mangal Panday was a Bhramin sepoy in British Army. He led an attack to 34th Infantary at Barrackpore.



v Consequences of First War of Independence      

Ø Political and Administrative effects

·        End of Company Rule

·        End of Mughals and Peshwas

·        Policy of Divide and Rule

·        Increased Racial Bitterness

·        Changes in Army

·        Policy of non-interference in Religious affairs

·        Economic Exploitation

·        Rise of Nationalism

·        Queen Victoria’s Proclamation

o   Non-intervention in social and religious matters

o   Treat Indians and Europeans as equals

o   Grant general pardon to those who took part in War except those guilt of murder.

o   Promote work of Public utility in India